The Indian pharmaceutical market size is expected to grow to US$ 100 billion by 2025, driven by increasing consumer spending, rapid urbanisation, and raising healthcare insurance among others. Going forward, better growth in domestic sales would also depend on the ability of companies to align their product portfolio towards chronic therapies

a) MMR: Measles

Measles is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Morbilliviruses, like other paramyxoviruses, are enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA viruses.

Incidence / Prevalence

Worldwide, there are an estimated 30 million cases of measles each year, but the incidence is only 0–10/100 000 people in countries with widespread vaccination programmes such as the USA, UK, Mexico, India, China, Brazil, and Australia. In the USA, before licensing of effective vaccines, more than 90% of people were infected by the age of 15 years. After licensing in 1963, incidence fell by about 98%. The mean annual incidence in Finland was 366/100 000 in 1970, but declined to about zero by the late 1990s. Similarly, the annual incidence declined to about zero in Chile, the English speaking Caribbean, and Cuba during the 1990s, when vaccination programmes were introduced.

b) Mumps

Mumps or epidemic parotitis is a viral disease of the human species, caused by the mumps virus. Prior to the development of vaccination and the introduction of a vaccine, it was a common childhood disease worldwide, and is still a significant threat to health in the third world.

Incidence / Prevalence

Predominantly affects children, with 32% of reported cases worldwide in children aged 0–4 years and 53% in children aged 5–14 years. In the prevaccine era, by 10 years of age, 87% of the population in England had serological evidence of mumps infection. Since the introduction of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, there has been a decrease in the incidence of disease, such that in some countries (e.g. Finland), there is no longer any indigenous disease. Those cases that still occur are usually in an older age group, who are unvaccinated. For example, in 2005, over 56 000 cases of mumps were reported in England and Wales (compared with 16 000 cases in 2004). In contrast to figures from 1989, where 12% of cases occurred in people aged 15 years or over, in 2005 over 80% of cases occurred in this age group.

c) Rubella

Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is a disease caused by the rubella virus. The name "rubella" is derived from the Latin, meaning little red. Rubella is also known as German measles because the disease was first described by German physicians in the mid-eighteenth century

Incidence / Prevalence

In the prevaccine era in the UK, rubella was uncommon under the age of 5 years, with the peak incidence being at 5–10 years of age. Serological surveys around the world found that by late adolescence/early adulthood, 80% of women had been infected.

d) TETANUS (TT)

Tetanus, also called lockjaw, is a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. The primary symptoms are caused by tetanospasmin, a neurotoxin produced by the Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani. Infection generally occurs through wound contamination and often involves a cut or deep puncture wound. As the infection progresses, musclespasms develop in the jaw (thus the name "lockjaw") and elsewhere in the body. Infection can be prevented by proper immunization and bypost-exposure prophylaxis.

e) RABIES

Rabies virus belongs to the order Mononegavirales, viruses with a nonsegmented, negative-stranded RNA genomes. Within this group, viruses with a distinct "bullet" shape are classified in the Rhabdoviridae family, which includes at least three genera of animal viruses, Lyssavirus, Ephemerovirus, and Vesiculovirus.

Incidence (annual) of Rabies: 18,000 cases (of rabies shots rather than actual rabies)

Incidence Rate: approx 1 in 15,111 or 0.01% or 18,000 people in USA

Incidence extrapolations for USA for Rabies: 18,000 per year, 1,500 per month, 346 per week, 49 per day, 2 per hour

Worldwide incidence of Rabies: 10 million cases (WHO)

Prevalance of Rabies: Although rabies in humans is rare in the United States, as many as 18,000 Americans get rabies shots each year because they have been in contact with animals that may be rabid (rabies-infected).